We spoke about the role of nutrients and their importance in another article. Today the topic is slightly different – how to calculate the norm of nutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates). The need for nutrients depends on the type of training and the overall training goal. It can be a set of muscle mass or weight loss. Also note that, depending on the diet, the main nutrients and their ratio can be dramatically different. Let’s talk about this in more detail.
First of all, forget about all formulas of the form: X grams to multiply by the weight of the body. They are not true, and invented to simplify dietetics. Initially, such schemes were needed for beginners, but they suddenly began to be positioned as a golden rule. In practice, however, multiplying grams by body weight is irrational, since people with the same weight have different ratios of muscle and fat mass.
The actual nutrient demand is displayed as a percentage of your daily calories. That is, to determine the norm of nutrients, you need to know the calorie rate. We discussed this in other articles, read them.
A single norm does not exist, because people pursue different training goals. For a set of muscle mass, emphasis should be placed on carbohydrates and proteins, since the former give energy for training, and the latter – participate in the construction of muscle tissue. When losing weight, the key role is played by protein and fat. In this case, the proteins retain muscle mass and give saturation. Fats also give satiety, normalize the hormonal background and suppress physiological stresses from a calorie deficit. Carbohydrates here take a back seat, as they do not suppress appetite, but on the contrary – cause it even more.
Also remember about sex differences. Women need more fat in the diet, as the hormonal system is arranged differently and relies mainly on the influx of fats from food. In addition, the condition of the skin, hair, nails depends largely on the amount of fat in the diet.
- When recruiting muscle mass: proteins 20%, carbohydrates 60%, fats 20% of daily calories
- When losing weight: proteins 30%, carbohydrates 40%, fats 30%
Proteins 20-25%, carbohydrates 40-45%, fats 30-35%.
For women there is no division into periods of recruitment of muscle mass or weight loss. In their case, a key role is played by the training process and the deficit / excess of calories. There is no need to focus on proteins, fats or carbohydrates. It is enough to choose a comfortable percentage for yourself. Let’s note only one rule – it is impossible to reduce fats below 30% of calories.
Number of grams of nutrients
Let’s say you know your daily calorie rate, but how to convert it into grams of proteins, fats and carbohydrates? It’s pretty simple.
- 1 g protein = 4 kcal
- 1g of carbohydrates = 4 kcal
- 1g fat = 9 calories
- 1g of alcohol = 7 kcal
Example: 2555 kcal – the norm of calories, weight – 73 kg. Kolya. Student, gaining muscle mass. To begin with, we calculate the percentages of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Let’s take the ratio: proteins 20%, carbohydrates 60%, fats 20%. Proteins 20% of 2555 kcal = 511 kcal Carbohydrates 60% of 2555 kcal = 1533 kcal Fats 20% of 2555 kcal = 511 kcal
Knowing the calorie content of each gram, we can perform a simple arithmetic operation: Proteins = 511/4 = 127.75 grams (rounded up to 128 g) Carbohydrates = 1533/4 = 384 grams Fats = 511/9 = 56 grams
Change the balance the way it will be convenient for you, but the protein should not be much or little. A meager amount of fat will not give you enough to eat and undermine the hormonal background. The upper limit of protein is 30% of the daily calorific value. The lower limit of fat is 20%.
Remember, this is not a golden rule, from which there are no exceptions. You can change the ratio of nutrients and look at your health. This is the essence of fitness – to find the most suitable scheme for yourself. We have only shown that the nutrient norm is calculated on the basis of the calorie rate, and not because of the weight multiplied by grams.
Food and Nutrients
The Internet is full of different tables and calorie search engines. Specify the product you are interested in, and the database shows the number of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Usually the standard uses a weight of 100g.
For example, 100 g of oatmeal = 342 kcal, proteins 12g, carbohydrates 59g, fats 6.1g.
Similarly, you can see any product, which will help you fully meet the needs for protein, fat and carbohydrates.
Treat the choice of foods with care. Natural healthy products perfectly cope with hunger and the needs of the body, but the modern food industry offers delicious “harmful” products.
Note that beginners for weight loss should not be overly bother counting grams of protein / fat / carbohydrates and the choice of foods. For weight loss is important only a calorie deficit. Therefore, in the beginning it is desirable to learn how to observe the calorie deficit, and only then gradually modify the diet and add the correct ratio of nutrients. As practice shows – the pursuit of two “rabbits” leads to the collapse of the diet.
if you do not like carbohydrates – increase the amount of protein, their caloric content is identical and they easily replace each other in this direction. But do not replace protein with carbohydrates.